High blood pressure Symptoms
High blood pressure symptoms, or How to “catch” an invisible enemy?
Hypertension(High blood pressure) is considered one of the most common and insidious cardiovascular diseases.
How to identify high blood pressure symptoms why it is important to do this as soon as possible – you will learn from this article. According to some reports, every fourth inhabitant of our planet from 15 to 64 years old suffers from high blood pressure. The main danger of hypertension(high blood pressure) is that over time it can lead to a heart attack and stroke, prolonged disability, disability, or even death. Therefore, it is so important to know more about the symptoms of hypertension and its treatment.
The silent killer, or What is Hypertension(high blood pressure)?
Hypertension (other names: arterial hypertension, arterial hypertension) is high blood pressure. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis of “hypertension”, and the presence of a disease is only indicated if elevated blood pressure was recorded with at least three control measurements.
Normally, the pressure can increase or decrease during the day and in various situations (during exercise, it is higher, during sleep – lower). But it should return to normal rates – from 100 to 60 to 140 to 90. If the pressure is constantly 140 to 90 or stably higher, then they speak of the presence of hypertension.
Causes of high blood pressure
At physiological and chemical levels, increased pressure is a natural reaction of the body to any danger or stress. In a critical situation, adrenaline is released into the blood, the heart begins to work faster, the vessels narrow, the muscles contract and the pressure rises.
So the body mobilizes its resources to be saved. However, in the modern world, our body experiences such a stressful load constantly, which is why increased pressure becomes not a protective mechanism, but a direct threat.
Regular stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, problems – all this can lead to increased pressure. However, doctors also call other causes of hypertension: heredity, overweight or obesity, disorders of the thyroid gland, kidneys, magnesium deficiency in the body, and some medications.
The following groups of people are at risk of developing hypertension(high blood pressure) those whose parents have or have had high blood pressure. Most often, this disease is hereditary;
overweight, leading an unhealthy/sedentary lifestyle;
suffering from osteochondrosis of the cervicothoracic region and atherosclerosis. In these cases, the vessels are compressed, which threatens to increase pressure;
women and men during the period of extinction of sexual function (menopause), since hormones also strongly affect pressure;
Persons subject to constant stress and nervous strain. In many cases, hypertension also has psychological reasons: overload and unexpressed negative emotions increase pressure. The more stress, the higher the likelihood of a hypertensive crisis. In this case, the most optimal solution is to learn to relax and calm down;
having high cholesterol in the blood;
patients with diabetes;
Men are more likely than women to suffer from hypertension, and the highest prevalence rates are observed in people over 50 years old. It is at this age that hormonal changes occur, we begin to move less, weight grows, and the experiences accumulated over the years of life haunt. Men at the age of 55 and women over 65 are at risk. But it is worth remembering that hypertension has no age restrictions, and even very young people can suffer from high blood pressure.
Hypertension is dangerous complications and consequences to which it can lead. Unfortunately, often these consequences are fatal. Here are just a few of them:
- The development of atherosclerosis;
chronic cerebrovascular accident;
kidney disease (renal failure);
complications of diabetes;
Some of these serious diseases can lead to disability, disability, and even death. That is why it is important to know the symptoms of hypertension and try to detect it even at the initial stage.
High blood pressure Symptoms
The insidiousness of hypertension is not only in the complications to which it leads but often in its hidden course. As a rule, the first symptoms of high blood pressure are not worrisome, often people do not pay attention to them, suggesting that they are simply overworked or a little cold. Fatigue, lethargy, flies in the eyes, nausea, regular headaches – all this should spoil. Already with the appearance of these symptoms, it is worth starting to regularly measure blood pressure. If it is consistently high, consult a doctor immediately! This is how hypertension of the first degree manifests itself.
The following symptoms should also alert the High blood pressure Symptoms
swelling of the hands;
swelling in the morning;
puffiness of the face;
The first degree is considered easy, and the pressure ranges from 140–159 / 90–99. With timely access to a doctor and treatment, it is sometimes possible to achieve full recovery if you change your lifestyle.
With hypertension of the second degree, the pressure rises to 160–179 / 100–109. At this stage, hypertension already makes itself felt:
pains in the region of the heart.
The second degree of hypertension is dangerous because organs begin to suffer, especially the eyes. The risk of stroke increases. One change in lifestyle can no longer be corrected; medications prescribed by a doctor are required.
The third degree of hypertension is already a very serious threat to life, since the vessels are under tremendous strain, and irreversible consequences occur in the cardiac system. Pressure rises to 180/110. With this degree of hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, arrhythmia, and other diseases can develop. In the second and third degrees, a hypertensive crisis also poses a serious threat to life, in which all the symptoms of hypertension worsen and lower blood pressure rises sharply. In this condition, severe headaches, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting are observed.
Diagnosis of the disease
In connection with the danger of the consequences of high blood pressure(hypertension) and the certain complexity of its independent identification at the initial stage, a competent and timely diagnosis of the disease is very important. What is recommended to make an accurate diagnosis? First of all, this, of course, is the measurement of pressure, as well as the study of the so-called target organs.
Blood pressure measurement
Pressure measurement can be carried out independently (in the presence of an electronic tonometer). However, for making a diagnosis, the doctor can use the ABPM – a method of daily monitoring of blood pressure. For this, a portable device is installed on the patient’s belt, and a cuff is placed on the shoulder. At certain points in time, the cuff will inflate, and the device will record the pressure. During the day, the pressure is recorded every 10-15 minutes, at night – every half hour. Measurements are carried out in natural and familiar to humans conditions.
Urine and blood tests
To diagnose hypertension, it is also necessary to take blood and urine tests (to determine the levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit, potassium, calcium, glucose, creatinine; blood lipid spectrum, including the level of HDL cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides).
Evaluation of the heart
There are several methods for evaluating the functioning of the heart muscle.
Physical diagnosis involves examining the heart muscle with a phonendoscope. The doctor “listens” to the heart, reveals noises, rhythm disturbance. According to the results of physical diagnosis, prescribes an ECG.
An ECG, or an electrocardiogram, is also an assessment of the work of the heart muscle, only more detailed. Such a study allows you to identify possible changes in time and to fully analyze the work of the heart for a certain period. The study of the heart can also be carried out using ultrasound waves or echocardiography, which reveals the condition of the heart valves, wall thickness, and the presence of defects.
Another effective ultrasound study is dopplerography, which helps to determine the state of blood flow through the vessels.
And finally, the X-ray method – arteriography – assesses the condition of the arterial walls, reveals atheromatous plaques, arterial defects, etc.
The eyes, like the heart, are considered the target organ for hypertension, therefore, when diagnosing high blood pressure, an eye fundus is examined by an ophthalmologist. As a rule, with hypertension at the initial stage, the retinal veins expand and the artery contracts. These functional changes are reversible: when the pressure normalizes, the vessels return to normal.
At the second stage (at consistently high pressure), organic changes are already occurring, and the condition is deteriorating. Microaneurysms appear, haemorrhage may occur.
At the third stage, the state of the optic nerve changes, visual acuity, and field of vision worsens, and visual functions are impaired.
Ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenal glands
First of all, kidney function is assessed. Due to increased pressure in the kidneys, nephrons die – cells that daily filter litres of blood from toxins. Ultimately, this can lead to kidney failure. Ultrasound of the kidneys helps to identify: volume formations in the adrenal glands, severe damage to the kidney tissue. An ultrasound of the renal arteries is also prescribed.
So, even the first signs of hypertension are an occasion to be more attentive to your health and consult a doctor to exclude the possibility of a serious illness
- Normal blood pressure
- Normal blood pressure of the human body is more than 120/80 and less than 140/90