October 2, 2020

Skin Types

Understanding the skinSkin types and health conditions


Understand the four types of skin: normal, dry, oily or combination skinNormal skinDry skinOily skinMixed skinSkin type and health assessment

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There are four types of skin: normal, dry, oily, or combination skin. The skin type is determined by our genetic heritage. The state of health of our skin can, however, vary considerably depending on the various internal and external factors to which it is exposed.
 
Understand the four types of skin: normal, dry, oily or combination skin
If you need help assessing your skin type, the skin test can be a useful tool. If you need additional advice on the best care for your skin, Eucerin recommends that you consult a dermatologist or seek the advice of a pharmacist.
 
Normal skin
The term “normal skin” is widely used to describe balanced skin. The scientific term for healthy skin is “endemic”.
 
The face of a woman with normal skin
Normal skin is balanced: neither too oily nor too dry.
Dry skin
The term “dry skin” is used to describe a skin type that produces less sebum than normal skin. Because of this sebum deficiency, dry skin does not have the lipids it needs to retain moisture and build a protective barrier against external aggressions.

 

The face of a woman with dry skin
The skin may appear tight, rough, and dull.
Oily skin
The term “oily skin” is used to describe a skin type with increased sebum production. Overproduction is called seborrhea.
 
The face of a woman with oily skin
Oily skin glows and its pores are visible.
Mixed skin
As its name suggests, combination skin represents a mixture of two types of skin.
 
The face of a woman with combination skin
The variation in skin types on the cheeks and the T-zone is characteristic of combination skin.
Normal skin
What is normal skin?
 
The term “normal skin” is widely used to describe balanced skin. The scientific term for healthy skin is “endemic”. The T zone (forehead, chin, and nose) may be slightly oily, but the balance of sebum and hydration is not generally altered. The skin is neither too oily nor too dry.
 
How to recognize normal skin

 

Normal skin:
 
Has good blood circulation
Has a soft, smooth and velvety texture
Has a fresh translucent appearance and a uniform pink color
Has no imperfection
 
And is not sensitive.
 
As a person with normal skin ages, their skin may tend to dry out. Find out more on the page on dryness due to aging.
 
Close up of beautiful and radiant skin
A soft, smooth, and velvety texture is the sign of beautiful and radiant skin.
Dry skin
What is dry skin?
 
The term “dry skin” is used to describe a skin type that produces less sebum than normal skin. Because of this sebum deficiency, dry skin does not have the lipids it needs to retain moisture and build a protective barrier against external aggressions. This can impair the barrier function. There are several forms and degrees of severity when it comes to dry skin (xerosis). It is sometimes difficult to distinguish them.
 
Many more women than men suffer from dry skin and all skin types dry out with age. The problems associated with dry skin are common: part of the consultations with dermatologists are linked to it.
 
Causes of dry skin
 
It is thanks to the water contained in the deepest layers of the skin and perspiration that the skin is hydrated.
 
The skin loses water permanently via:
 
Sweating: active loss of water from the glands caused by heat, stress, and physical activity.
The insensible loss of water: natural and passive loss. The skin diffuses about half a liter of water from the deepest layers of the skin per day.
 
Dryness of the skin is caused by a deficiency:
 
Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMF), especially urea, amino acids, and lactic acid, which help retain water.
In epidermal lipids, such as ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, necessary to maintain a healthy skin barrier function.
 
As a result, the barrier function of the skin may be impaired.
 
Find out more information on the dry skin page.
 
Close up of dry skin
The feeling of tight, rough skin indicates dry skin.
The face of an elderly woman
Older women with dry skin have more pronounced wrinkles and fine lines.
Assess the different degrees of dry skin
 

Dry skin may be slightly drier than normal, very dry or extremely dry water. The differences can be identified as follows:

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Dry skin
Slightly dry skin may appear tight, rough, and dull. Its elasticity is also low.
 
Very dry skin
If dryness is left untreated, the skin can:
Undergo a light flaking in plates
Have a rough and mottled appearance (this is sometimes due to premature aging)
Produce a feeling of tightness
Itch
 
It is also more vulnerable to irritation, redness, and the risk of infection. Find out more information on the dry skin page.
 
Extremely dry skin
Certain parts of the body, more particularly the hands, feet, elbows, and knees, are prone:
Redness
Chapping with a tendency to rhagades
Calluses
Flaking
Frequent itching sensations
 
The elderly and people with severely dehydrated hands are the most prone to have extremely dry skin. Find more information on the rough and chapped body skin page.
Close-up on dry skin
Internal and external factors can disrupt the skin’s hydration capacity.
Close up of a heel with chapped skin
The soles of the feet tend to dry out and crack.
Oily skin
What is oily skin?
 
The term “oily skin” is used to describe a skin type with increased sebum production. Overproduction is called seborrhea.
 
Causes of oily skin
 
Several factors can trigger an overproduction of sebum:
Genetic heritage
Imbalances or hormonal changes
Medication
The stress
Comedogenic cosmetics (makeup products that cause irritation)
The face of a woman with oily skin and imperfections
Oily skin tends to have blemishes.
How to identify the different types of oily skin?
 
Oily skin is characterized by:
Clearly visible and enlarged pores
A shiny appearance
Pale, thicker skin: vessels may be unnoticeable
 
Oily skin is prone to blackheads and blackheads and various forms of acne.
 
In case of mild acne, a large number of blackheads appear on the face, but also often on the neck, shoulders, back, and chest.
 
In moderate to mild acne, papules (small pimples with no visible white or black dots), and pustules (medium-sized pimples with a visible white or black dot in the center); the skin becomes red and inflamed.

 

 
Close up of a cheek with large pores
Oily skin is characterized by large and visible pores.
Close up on a forehead with acne symptoms
Acne problems often appear in the T-zone and especially at puberty.
Mixed skin
What is a combination of skin?
 
The variation in skin types on the cheeks and the T-zone is characteristic of combination skin. The surface of the so-called T-zone can vary a lot: it can be very thin or large.
 
Combination skin is characterized by:
A fatty T zone (forehead, chin, and nose)
Large pores in this area and possible impurities
Dry to normal cheeks
The face of a woman with combination skin
An oily T-zone (forehead, chin, and nose) and drier cheeks are the markers of what is called combination skin.
Causes of combination skin
 
The oily areas of combination skin are due to an overproduction of sebum. The drier areas of combination skin are due to a lack of sebum and the lipid deficiency that goes with it.
 
Skin type and health assessment
Unlike the skin type, the health of the skin can vary a lot throughout a lifetime. The many internal and external factors that determine this state of health include: climate and pollution, taking medication, stress, hereditary factors that affect sebum levels, sweating and the natural hydration factors produced by your skin, as well as the products you use and the choices you make in skincare.
 
Skincare products should be chosen based on the skin type. Dermatologists and other skincare experts assess the state of health and determine a person’s skin type by measuring the following factors:
 
Signs of aging
Our skin type can change with age. Oily skin in adolescence can dry out after puberty and normal skin can dry out with age.
 
All skin types are affected by age. The skin then loses volume and density, wrinkles and fine lines appear and changes in pigmentation occur. Understanding and measuring these signs of aging allows us to determine the state of healthy skin. Find out more information on the skin aging page.
 
Skin color
The ethnicity and color of the skin have an influence on how our skin reacts to external aggressions, such as the sun, pigmentation disorders, irritations, and inflammations. The basic color of our skin depends on the density of the epidermis and the distribution of melanin. Find out more on the ethnic skin page.
 
The redness of the skin is also a useful element in assessing his state of health. This helps to determine if circulation is good and to identify conditions, such as rosacea and rosacea.
 
Woman applying cream on her cheekbone
The use of anti-aging products can reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
The face of a woman with brown spots on the cheek
B-resorcinol, the main active ingredient in EUCERIN EVEN BRIGHTER products, has been shown to visibly reduce dark spots.
The production of sebum and perspiration
The amount of sebum produced by the sebaceous glands of the skin regulates the effectiveness of the barrier function of the skin and therefore its state of health. Overproduction of sebum can be synonymous with acne-prone and oily skin. On the contrary, a low production of sebum means dry skin.
 
The sweat glands in the skin produce perspiration to help the body maintain an optimal temperature. The excessive or weak production of perspiration can have consequences on the health of the skin.
 
Woman applying skincare on her face
People with oily skin must follow a daily skincare program, with the appropriate products.
Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMF)
Naturally produced by healthy skin, natural hydration factors, such as amino acids, help retain water in the skin, preserve its elasticity and suppleness and prevent dehydration. When the protective barrier of the skin is damaged, the skin can often no longer retain these essential natural hydration factors. The hydration of the skin decreases and its health is affected.
 
Sensitive skin
Sensitive skin is easily irritated and is more reactive than normal skin. The identification and evaluation of symptoms, such as redness, erythema, stinging sensations, itching, and burning, make it possible to assess the state of health of the skin.

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