What is anemia
It is a medical condition characterized by the lack of an adequate amount of red blood cells in the body to transport enough oxygen to the tissues.
In this article, we discussed Anemia, causes, treatment, types of White and red blood cells
People with anemia are more likely to feel tired very often.
It is defined as a decrease in one or more of the measurements related to erythrocytes:
Hemoglobin concentration (HGB): This is the concentration of hemoglobin that is the primary carrier of oxygen gas in the blood
Hematocrit (HCT): blood precipitate or percentage of red blood cell volume in total blood volume.
RBC count: This is the number of red blood cells present in a predetermined size of the total blood volume.
The definition of anemia according to the above test values varies among males and females:
Males: values less than 13.5 g / dL for hemoglobin concentration and values below 41 in the hematocrit percentage.
Females: Values less than 12 g / dL for hemoglobin concentration and values less than 36 in the percentage of hematocrit.
Different hemoglobin values
Below we will talk about special groups whose normal hemoglobin values may differ from the rest of humans for genetic, genetic or life-related reasons:
Smokers: It is known that smokers have higher hematocrit values ”blood stacks” than non-smokers in a normal way, this may lead to camouflage and conceal the presence of it in these people smokers if any because we will not see it in laboratory blood tests.
Highlanders: People who live high above sea level have higher hemoglobin values than those who live near sea level.
African Americans: They have hemoglobin values as low as 0.5-1.0 g / dL on average globally.
Chronic disease: Chronic illness may lead to lower hemoglobin values than are universally accepted natural values, but these values do not actually indicate anemia.
Athletes: Athletes have normal hemoglobin values that are different from universally recognized natural values.
There are a few different types of its, and each type has its own cause.
When anyone suspects that they have anemia, they should refer to the doctor, because it can be an early sign of the development of the more severe and serious disease.
Treatments for anemia range from eating food additives to medical treatments. It may be possible to prevent the development of certain types of Its by maintaining balanced, varied, and healthy nutrition.
The symptoms of anemia in patients depending on the degree of It they suffer in addition to the frequency of disease progression and the patient’s need for oxygen.
Symptoms(mentioned below) usually appear if the disease progresses very quickly, but if the development of anemia is slow, it is possible that these symptoms do not appear because the body has become accustomed to the new position.
Symptoms vary and vary, depending on the cause, which includes:
Fast and irregular heart palpitations
Chilled hands and feet
Myocardial infarction (in rare and severe cases of the disease).
Early it may be very mild and imperceptible, but the symptoms get worse as the disease worsens.
Causes and risk factors
The blood consists of a liquid called “plasma” (plasma/plasma) and cells.
Types of blood cells
Three different types of blood cells float inside the plasma:
Leucocytes: These cells fight infection.
Platelet / Thrombocyte: These cells help blood clot after infection.
Erythrocytes: These cells carry oxygen from the lungs, through the blood flow, to the brain, other vital organs, and tissues in the body.
The importance of hemoglobin
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin (hemoglobin), a protein-rich in red iron that gives blood its usual color (red).
Hemoglobin enables red blood cells to transfer (carry) oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and transfer carbon dioxide from the body, back, to the lungs, so that it can be expelled from the body in the exhalation process.
Most blood cells, including red blood cells, are constantly produced in the marrow (Bone marrow), which is a red spongy substance found inside the large bone cavities in the body.
To produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, the body needs iron, other minerals, vitamins, and proteins that are available in human food. In addition to some hormones, the most important of which is the hormone Erythropoietin (EPO), which the kidneys secrete to produce red blood cells.
It should be noted that the average life of a red blood cell ranges from 110 to 120.
When a person suffers from anemia, his body does not produce enough red blood cells, but rather wastes many of them or damages them faster than its ability to produce new blood cells.
Just type of blood
Common types of anemia – anemia – and its causes include:
Iron deficiency anemia: This common type of anemia affects approximately 2-3% of the US adult population. The reason for its occurrence is the lack of iron in the body. Because the bone marrow needs iron to produce hemoglobin, and if the supply of iron is not sufficient, the body will not be able to produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells.
Vitamin Deficiency Anemia: In addition to its need for iron, the body also needs folic acid and Vitamin B12 to produce a sufficient amount of the correct red blood cells. A diet lacking one of the vital nutritional compounds can lead to reduced red blood cell production.
Some people suffer from the inability of their bodies to absorb vitamin B-12 effectively.
Anemia is a symptom of chronic disease: many chronic diseases, such as cancer, Cancer, AIDS, gout, Crohn’s disease, and other chronic inflammatory diseases, can affect the production of Red blood cells, thereby causing chronic anemia. Kidney failure can also lead to anemia.
Aplastic anemia: This type of anemia is very rare, but it is life-threatening. It occurs as a result of the reduced ability of the bone marrow to produce the three types of blood cells (red, white blood cells, and platelets). The cause of aplastic anemia remains unknown in most cases. However, it is believed that it has something to do with diseases affecting the immune system.
Anemia caused by a disease in the bone marrow: Many diseases, such as leukemia, myeloid dysplasia (Myelodysplasia) are a previous medical condition of leukemia and can lead to appearance of anemia and affect the bone marrow.
Effects of precancerous or semi-precancerous disorders, these can range from a very mild change in the amounts of blood cell production to the complete cessation of blood production, which is dangerous to life. Other types of cancer attack the blood and bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders, and lymphoma.
Hemolysis Anemia: This group of types of anemia develops when red blood cells are destroyed more quickly than the bone marrow’s ability to produce new blood cells.
Infection with some diseases: Certain blood diseases can cause extensive red blood cell damage.
Disturbances in the immune system can prompt the body to produce antibodies against red blood cells and to cause them to be destroyed prematurely. Also, taking certain drugs, such as different types of antibiotics (antibiotics) used to treat different types of infections (infections), can also cause damage to red blood cells.
Sickle cell anemia:
This type of anemia is sometimes severe, transmitted by heredity, and in most cases affects people of African, Arab, or Mediterranean descent. This type of anemia occurs as a result of a hemoglobin imbalance that makes red blood cells an exceptional sickle-like shape. This form of a red blood cell causes these cells to atrophy and die prematurely, thus causing a chronic deficiency in red blood cells.
Other types of anemia: There are other additional types of anemia are more rare types such as Thalassemia, and types caused by defects in hemoglobin. Sometimes, an accurate diagnosis of the cause of anemia cannot be found.
Anemia risk factors
Risk factors for anemia include:
Malnutrition: Every person, whether young or adult, is fed mostly poorly fortified foods such as iron and vitamins, especially folic acid, prone to anemia. The body needs iron, protein, and vitamins to produce enough red blood cells.
Intestinal diseases and disorders: People with diseases or intestinal disorders that affect the absorption of food compounds in the small intestine, such as Crohn’s disease and Celiac disease, are people at risk of anemia.
An operation to remove part of the small intestine, or treat the affected part of the small intestine, in which food compounds are absorbed, can lead to a deficiency of certain food compounds, and then to anemia next.
Menstrual cycle: Women of fertile age are, in general, the group most likely to develop iron deficiency anemia, compared to men. This is because women lose amounts of blood, and as a result, they lose iron, too, during their menstrual period.
A pregnant woman is very susceptible to iron deficiency anemia because the iron stock available to her should support a larger volume of blood than normal and also be a source of hemoglobin that the fetus needs for growth and development.
Chronic diseases and conditions: People with cancer, Renal failure or Hepatic failure, or any other chronic medical condition, may be vulnerable to the development of it called “anemia associated with chronic diseases” (anemia as a symptom of chronic disease) ).
These medical conditions may cause red blood cell deficiency. Also, slow but chronic blood loss, caused by peptic ulcers, or ulcers elsewhere in the body, may lead to depletion of iron stores in the body, thus causing iron deficiency anemia.
Genetic factors: if anyone family members who have a hereditary cause of it, such as sickle cell anemia, this constitutes a risk factor for anemia, on a genetic basis.
If anemia is not treated, it may lead to various side effects and complications, including:
Hyper fatigue (excessive fatigue): In difficult anemia cases, the patient may feel tired enough to prevent him from performing his very simple daily duties, as he is very tired and difficult to play or work.
Heart problems: anemia may cause an acceleration and irregular heartbeat – arrhythmia (Arrhythmia). In anemia, the heart must pump more blood to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the blood. This may even lead to “heart failure”.
Nerve damage: Vitamin B-12 is necessary and vital not only for the production of healthy red blood cells but also for the proper functioning of the nervous system.
Cognitive changes: Vitamin B-12 deficiency may affect normal brain functioning.
Death: Certain types of inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia, may cause severe medical complications that are dangerous to life.
Loss of large amounts of blood during a short period, in general, leads to anemia, which may be fatal.
Diagnosis of anemia
Doctors can diagnose anemia by reviewing the patient’s medical history, performing a comprehensive physical examination and blood tests, including a comprehensive blood count (CBC – Complete blood count), a test that examines the level/focus of red blood cells as well as the level of hemoglobin in the blood.
In an adult human, the normal values of red blood cells range between 38.8 and 50 percent in males and between 34.9 and 44.5 percent in females, while normal hemoglobin values in an adult between 13.5 and 17.5 grams per deciliter in males and between 12 and 15.5 grams per deciliter in females.
Blood cells can be examined under a microscope to check for other causes, such as:
Conducting these tests may help to reach an accurate diagnosis. For example, in iron deficiency anemia, red blood cells are smaller and paler than usual. In vitamin-deficiency anemia, red blood cells are larger and smaller than normal.
Vitamin deficiency, red blood cells are larger and less numerous than usual.
Treatments vary and vary according to the cause. They are as follows:
Iron deficiency anemia treatment:
In most cases, anemia of this kind is treated with iron supplement (s).
Vitamin deficiency anemia treatment: It is a difficult type of Its that is treated with injections containing vitamin B-12, and in some cases, this may last a lifetime.
Treatment associated with chronic diseases: There is no specific treatment for this type of it.
Treatment of aplastic anemia: treatment of this type may include intravenous feeding to raise the number of red blood cells in the body.
Treating anemia caused by a bone marrow disease: Treatment for it caused by these multiple diseases ranges from taking medications with chemotherapy to bone marrow transplantation.
Treatment of hemolytic includes refraining from taking certain medications, treating associated infections (infections), and taking immunosuppressive drugs that attack red blood cells.
Treatment for sickle cell anemia: This treatment includes its, monitoring, and monitoring levels of oxygen in the body, taking pain relievers, drinking fluids, drinking, or by infusion to relieve pain and prevent complications.
Most cases of its not preventable.
However, it is possible to prevent the appearance of iron deficiency anemia or anemia caused by the deficiency of vitamins by a balanced and varied feeding that contains:
Vitamin B 12
Persistence in eating foods rich in iron is very important, especially for people with bodies that need very large quantities of iron, such as children who consume iron in large quantities during the growth period, pregnant women, and women of fertile age.
It is very important to supply sufficient quantities of iron, especially for children, for vegetarians, and for those who run long distances.
In addition to all of this, everyone must perform general blood tests once within several years, according to the recommendations of the family doctor, to check and avoid it.