Epilepsy ,seizure, epilepsy causes, types of epilepsy and treatment

May 25, 2020

What is epilepsy, seizure, epilepsy causes and types of epilepsy

Epilepsy attack on the brain

What is epilepsy, seizure, epilepsy causes, and types of epilepsy? what treatment epilepsy? It is a disease of the central nervous system


Epilepsy is a disease of the central nervous system (neurological dysfunction) wherein the exercise of nerve cells within the mind is interrupted inflicting convulsions, durations of bizarre habits, and typically lack of consciousness.

The signs of how an epileptic seizure happens can fluctuate broadly from case to case: in the course of the seizure, some folks stare at a degree for a couple of seconds, whereas others could repeatedly contract their legs and arms. 

Even gentle seizures have to be handled as a result of they are often harmful throughout actions resembling driving or swimming. The therapy, based mostly on medicine and/or surgical interventions, is ready to maintain the situation below management in 80% of instances.
What types of epileptic seizures are there?
Epileptic seizures are categorized into focal (partial) seizures and generalized seizures, relying on whether or not the discharge of nerve cells happens in a single area of the cerebral cortex or in the complete cerebral cortex.
As for generalized epileptic seizures, there are six types:
the disaster of absence, up to now additionally referred to as “little evil”, is characterized by fast and fleeting lack of consciousness (from four to 20 seconds) and represents one of the crucial typical types of epilepsy in kids and younger folks;
tonic seizures: tonic seizures trigger muscle tightening.
 These seizures often have an effect on the muscle tissues of the again, legs and arms and might trigger a fall to the bottom;

unstressed convulsions: trigger a lack of muscle management which may trigger sudden falls;



Clonic contractions:
 They’re related to repeated or rhythmic muscle actions. They often have an effect on the neck, face, and arms;

Myoclonic seizures:
Sudden and brief jerks of legs and arms;
tonic-clonic seizures: up to now often called “great evil”, they characterize probably the most critical type of epileptic seizure. 
These seizures final about 5-10 minutes and are characterized by an intense contraction section that impacts the entire physique, a section characterized by convulsions and a decision section characterized by noisy respiratory and sometimes lack of urine. The affected person doesn’t retain any reminiscence of the disaster.
Focal (or partial) seizures, alternatively, are characterized by sudden discharges of nerve cells from a single area of the cerebral cortex. In flip they’re divided into easy (without lack of consciousness) and sophisticated (with lack of consciousness). Simple focal seizures embody motor manifestations (seizures restricted to a particular space of ​​the physique, for instance, the arm); delicate (tingling); sensory (hallucinations, adjustments in style, odour, contact, listening to).
 Complex focal seizures, alternatively, contain a change or lack of consciousness; throughout a posh partial disaster, you’ll be able to repair the vacuum and never reply usually to stimuli or carry out repetitive actions, resembling rubbing your arms, chewing, swallowing, strolling in a circle.
Brain functions


What are the causes of epilepsy?

In about half of the individuals who endure this situation, the reason for the dysfunction remains to be unknown. These varieties for which no trigger is acknowledged but are often called main or idiopathic epilepsies. In the opposite half of the instances several components may provoke the onset of this pathology (we speak about secondary epilepsies):
genetic components (the disease is transmitted on the household degree; thus far it’s believed that there are about 500 genes that might be linked to the event of this situation);
head accidents;
different pathological situations affecting the mind resembling mind tumours or strokes (stroke is, without doubt, one of the major causes of epilepsy in adults over 35 years of age);
infectious illnesses resembling meningitis, AIDS and viral encephalitis;
prenatal lesions, resembling mom infections, malnutrition or oxygen deficiency;
developmental issues: epilepsy can typically be related to developmental issues resembling autism and neurofibromatosis.
What are the signs of epilepsy?
Since epilepsy is attributable to irregular mind cell exercise, there are several signs that seizures could cause:
Temporary confusion;
involuntary actions of the legs and arms;
lack of consciousness or consciousness;
Psychic symptoms of various kinds
It ought to be borne in thoughts that the signs fluctuate based on the kind of epileptic seizure (generalized or focal, easy or advanced).


The signs of focal epilepsy could be confused with these different neurological issues together with migraine, narcolepsy, and different psychological issues. To attain an analysis of the pathology, the physician will look at the affected person’s signs and medical historical past and will request that the affected person endure several in-depth exams:
neurological examination aimed attest the topic’s habits, motor expertise, psychological operate and different expertise;
neuropsychological exams geared toward assessing considering, reminiscence and language expertise;
blood exams, to test for infections, genetic illnesses or different situations which may be related to epilepsy;
electroencephalogram, to detect the presence of any mind abnormalities (it’s the most used take a look at to diagnose epilepsy).
The physician might also request that different exams are carried out that may reveal anomalies and malfunctions within the mind that would trigger crises (resembling tumours, hemorrhages, and cysts): computed tomography, computed axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, practical magnetic resonance imaging, emission tomography of positrons (PET). In some explicit instances, using single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) might also be required.



Most instances of epilepsy are saved below management by the administration of anti-epileptic medicine. In some instances, to cut back the frequency and depth of seizures, some folks profit from the mixture of several medicines.
An anti-epileptic medicine can have several unwanted side effects, together with tiredness, dizziness, weight acquires, bone density loss, pores and skin rashes, lack of coordination, speech issues, reminiscence, and considering issues, despair.
Among the surgical approaches, stimulation of the vagus nerve is utilized by implanting a particular system, just like a cardiac pacemaker.