What is tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The most typical type of TBis pulmonary tuberculosis. However, the disease can occur in any organ.
How is TB transmitted?
In some sufferers with pulmonary TB.So many TB bacteria are excreted into the sputum that there’s a threat of an infection within the immediate area.
When an individual with infectious pulmonary tuberculosis coughs or talks, an aerosol containing TB bacteria is launched into the air. When it’s inhaled, an individual in the same area is exposed to TB.
Only about a third of those exposed to TB become infected.
The threat of infection is affected by:
Proximity to contact
Any defective illnesses or medications of the exposed particular person
The amount of airborne TB bacterium.
Young children are particularly prone to TB infection and severe forms of the disease when infected.
In the majority of those infected with TB, the disease is never symptomatic.
The first symptoms of the illness usually appear within two years of infection. However, they may not appear until decades later as the resistance weakens due to ageing, underlying diseases, or defective drug therapies.
How is tuberculosis transmitted?
The effective prevention of tuberculosis is based on several measures.
Early detection and treatment of infectious pulmonary TB cases are essential to reducing the period of contagious disease.
TB is also prevented by vaccinating children with the BCG or TB vaccine, which is a part of the nationwide vaccination program.
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Bacteria
BCG or TB vaccine
Research and monitoring of those exposed to TB
Careful examination and monitoring of close relatives of a patient with infectious stage tuberculosis, usually living in the same family, is required.
The research identifies potential TB infections that are at risk of developing asymptomatic disease that requires treatment.
To detect cases of tuberculosis at an early stage, health checks are also carried out in groups where the disease is known to be more prevalent than in the general population.
Recommendation on TBan infection surveillance
What are the symptoms of tuberculosis?
Symptoms of pulmonary TB include a prolonged cough lasting up to months and mucous sputum. At the same time, weight reduction and deterioration may happen. A chest X-ray shows shading.
How is tuberculosis diagnosed?
By culturing the bacterium in a secretion or tissue sample
Sputum tuberculosis staining
By demonstrating the presence of the bacterium by a gene amplification methodology.
Laboratory assessments for mycobacteria
How is TB treated?
The treatment of TB is a combination of several medicines, the implementation of which is well standardized internationally.
The treatment, which lasts at the least six months, is beneficial, and its outcomes, when carefully implemented, are excellent.
Eastern European countries, as well as developing countries, have strains of TB bacteria that are resistant to conventional tuberculosis medicine and are more complex to treat.
How much TB occurs, and how is it monitored?
The average age of those with TB has decreased. This is due, firstly, to the decrease within the age groups in which the prevalence of the disease.