What is Microcephaly | Microcephaly Causes and Treatment

What is Microcephaly | Microcephaly Causes and Treatment
July 17, 2021


Microcephaly, which has been a common and misunderstood problem for many people, has recently gained much popularity due to its association with Zika virus infection during its pregnancy. It is also called the zika baby virus.

In this article, we will explain what microcephaly is, what its major causes are, its symptoms, types of prognosis,  what is microcephaly baby and treatment options.

Here, let’s talk about microcephaly, which is totally associated with a variety of diseases, including Zika.

ZIKA FEBRE – Causes, Symptoms, Microcephaly, and Treatment.


The size of the children’s heads is directly related to the size of the brain. As a baby’s brain grows, its cranium increases at the same rate.

Our skull consists of six bones, which at the time of birth are divided into fontanelles (milliers). This separation allows the skull to grow because the brain grows.

The brain actually pushes the skull bones, causing them to grow. This rate of increase is increased in the first few months and decreases over time as the fontanelles close and reduce the ability to expand the skull.

If for some reason the fetus does not properly develop the brain inside the uterus, it may be born with a smaller skull than expected. These conditions are known as congenital microcephaly.

Microcephaly can also be detected. The baby would always grow inside the fetal stage, however, the brain would stop growing after birth. Over time, your baby’s body will grow faster than your skull, making your head look smaller than expected. These conditions that occur after birth are known as acquired microcephaly.

Early closure of the fontanelles, known as craniosynostosis, is one of the possible causes after microcephaly is detected. In this case, the brain does not develop because there is a limit to its body space.

Often, microcephaly is associated with delays in mental development. In about 15% of patients, however, the microcephaly is weak and the child may have a normal or near-normal level of the esophagus.

As already mentioned, microcephaly itself should not be a disease, it is a signal of illness. When a child has microcephaly, one should try to find the cause of this mutation.

We will talk and explain the causes later.


The description of the microcephaly used in the presentation of this document is as simple as possible:
the front of the square is smaller than the standard for children of the same size and age.

In practice, however, we would like a more detailed explanation, including numbers or percentages so that this is compared to the people who have already done so.

Historically, the scientific explanation of microcephaly has always been a major problem and hidden from the general public. The 2 most commonly used settings are:

Occipitofrontal circumference (COF) is less than 2 normal deviations less mean or lower than the third percentile (weak microcephaly).

Occipitofrontal circumference (COF) is less than 3 standard deviations below the definition (excess microcephaly).

In order to apply the above standards, one has to see the concept of general deviation and have a circular table of the occipitofrontal circumference of various ages, keeping in mind the characteristics of the occupants in question.

With the emergence of Zika’s conditions in pregnancy, the incidence of microcephaly increased dramatically, and the prediction required simplification, at least for newborns.

Aimed at simplifying and promoting the discovery of microcephaly cases, the World Health Organization (WHO) has begun promoting microcephaly as a simple measure with a tape measure to measure the head cycle.

Boys with a cephalic perimeter below or equal to 31.9 cm or girls with a cephalic perimeter below or equal to 31.5 cm are considered microcephalic.

It is very important to emphasize that this procedure is only applicable to new babies and full days, that is, more than 37 weeks of pregnancy.

This vaccine should not help predict microcephaly or congenital microcephaly in premature babies.

Microcephaly Causes

Many illnesses can cause microcephaly, ranging from genetic to drug or drug overdose throughout pregnancy, infection, and trauma.

Below we will list the number of possible causes:

Problems of genetic or chromosomal origin, such as Down Syndrome, Poland, Edward, Patau, Rett, X-linked microcephaly, and many more.

Complications during childbirth or pregnancy lead to a lack of oxygen in the baby’s brain (hypoxic encephalopathy).

Craniosynostosis (the first incorporation of skull bones).

Infections during pregnancy, such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, varicella, HIV, or Zika.

Use of teratogenic drugs during pregnancy.
Maternal malnutrition.

Alcohol use in pregnancy.

Drug use in pregnancy, such as heroin, marijuana, or cocaine.
Smoking throughout pregnancy.

Radiation exposure.

Lack of maternal mothers.

Maternal body diseases, such as phenylketonuria.

Maternal toxicity with lead or mercury.

Diabetes is not treated properly during pregnancy.

Side inside a new baby.

Although the above list is large and incomplete, most cases find themselves left unnoticed. This is usually due to genetic abnormalities that can be analyzed in their environment, or by sudden exposure to dangerous substances, or by birth defects that were not detected during pregnancy.


The current signal in all cases of microcephaly is a small head, of unequal size and body. Microcephaly that can cause delays in mental development is often clearly seen in physical examination.

Some patients with delicate microcephaly do not need all the other indications or signatures next to the head below the human average. In these cases, known as isolated microcephaly or microcephaly vera, mental capacity may also be almost completely lost.

Often, however, microcephaly is accompanied by a variety of signs and symptoms, either from poor mental development or from syndromes themselves that impede proper mental development with the cranium.

Depending on the severity of the associated syndrome, children with this disease may have:

  • Mental growth in the past.
    Delay in speech development.
    Delays in child development pathways (sit, stand, crawl, walk …)
    Traffic reduction.
    Muscle stiffness (stiffness).
    Facial distortion.
    Mutations are a common genetic disorder in which the affected person is a provider (such as Down’s syndrome, for example).
    A volatile disaster.
    Visual or auditory deficiency.


Predictions can be made even when you are pregnant with a fetal ultrasound, which is ready to measure the size of the fetal skull. The ideal time for this analysis is over in the second trimester when tests are often called “morphological ultrasound”.

Although fetal ultrasonography is standard, the scope of the newborn’s head needs to be measured 24 hours after birth. If you are a general practitioner, your pediatrician should maintain dosages for all general appointments until the child is 2 years old with your fonts closed.

If at any time a pediatrician suspects microcephaly, the child needs to be referred to a specialist pediatrician.

Other imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging, can provide much-needed information about the baby’s brain structure, work to confirm the disease, and provide recommendations for its possible causes.


Although there is no prescriptive drug that will stop the flow of emotions, though their effects can be curtailed by microcephaly.

As already noted, infants with delicate microcephaly usually have no problems other than a small head. These cases only require employment and do not require any specific treatment.

In children with craniosynostosis, there are surgical procedures that help to remove the bones from the skull, allowing the brain to grow beyond limits.

In children with severe conditions, treatment objectives in controlling related symptoms and symptoms, such as muscle stiffness, fainting, delayed speech development, etc.

Predictability of direct emotion is directly associated with the level of microcephaly, worse in patients with occipitofrontal circumference under 3 common defects under this definition and in this case with microcephaly caused by syndromes or diseases that affect you during pregnancy.

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